Asbestos Related Diseases -----------------Health problems
surfaced as early as 1900, but since the latency stage of lung disease
related to asbestos is usually 20 years or more, the magnitude of
the problem did not appear until recently, despite studies worldwide.
effects may not be fully known for a number of years. Hundreds of
thousands of workers and their families have been exposed to harmful
levels of contamination.
Asbestos fibres are harmful because
they are extremely small and sharp. Ordinary sized dust is caught
and expelled by the body's defences before it can be breathed in
to the lungs or swallowed into the stomach, but asbestos slips through
That's why it's the lungs and chest that suffer most, and
sometimes the stomach. Once inside, they begin to damage the tissues.
There is no known safe level of exposure to any type of asbestos.
However, not everyone exposed will become ill.
All we know is that the more asbestos
someone is exposed to the more likely
it is they will become ill
and that the only safe exposure is zero
Asbestos cancers generally take from 20 to 40 years
to develop (the 'latency period')
Although shorter and longer
periods have been recorded.
Pleural thickening can happen more quickly.
asbestos exposure has been proven to cause all forms of mesothelioma
cancer (including the most common pleural mesotheioma) lung cancer
and laryngeal cancer.
According to the National Cancer Institute, exposure to
asbestos also increases a person's risk of developing throat, oesophageal,
kidney and gallbladder cancer. Asbestos exposure has also been linked
to gastrointestinal cancer and colorectal cancer
Diseases related to asbestos
can be sorted into different classes. There are malignant (or cancerous)
ones such as mesothelioma and lung cancer. Then you have the benign
or non cancerous ones such as asbestosis, pleural plaques, diffuse
pleural fibrosis and benign pleural effusions
of mesothelioma is that it takes decades before most symptoms appear,
and by the time the cancer is discovered it is too entrenched in
the system to treat.
Mesothelioma occurs from exposure to asbestos.
grows on the lining of the lungs, (pleura), abdomen (peritoneum)
the lining of the pericardium
( the sac that surrounds the heart)
and the tunica vaginalis ( scrotal sac)
There are three
main types of mesothelioma, and each affects a different area of
the body. These categories are epithelioid, sarcomatoid cells, and
a mix of the two types called biphasic mesothelioma.
Epithelial mesothelioma is a rare and
deadly form of cancer that affects the membrane lining the chest
cavity, heart, lungs and abdominal cavity. There are three forms
of epithelial mesothelioma.
most common being pleural mesothelioma, then peritoneal mesothelioma
and the third being pericardial mesothelioma. Sarcomatoid is much
more serious, and it affects the secondary tissues such as bone,
muscles, cartilage, and or fat. This form is much rarer.
biphasic refers to both types of cancers at once.
is a terrible and deadly disease of the 21st century. Because it
takes decades before the first symptoms appear, many health professionals
believe that there will be a mesothelioma epidemic in the decades
Cancer Cell Types
To understand mesothelioma is to understand
cancer. Cancer is essentially the uncontrolled growth of cells.
Under normal circumstances, body cells in the hair, bone, organs
or blood grow to a certain point, die off, and are replaced by newer,
Unfortunately, most cancer cells are damaged
to some degree ,and as the body reproduces them they begin to take
over from healthy cells, leading to eventual system failure .
Mesothelioma cells are divided into three main categories:
Sarcomatoid cells, and a mix of the two types called Biphasic mesothelioma.
Cancers like mesothelioma can affect just about any type
of cell in the body, often radically affecting the prognosis and
treatment options for patients. The sad thing about mesothelioma
is that it takes decades before most symptoms appear, and by the
time the cancer is discovered it is usually to far advanced to to
The most common and relatively treatable
form of the cancer is Epithelioid mesothelioma.
Under a microscope
this type of the disease is seen as a papillary or tubular growth
and generally affects membranes and tissues that cover organs and
other internal bodily surfaces.
Between 50 - 70% of mesothelioma
cases fall into this category, and this type is most likely to respond
Is the most serious form
of the disease, as it rarely responds to any treatment whatsoever.
Fortunately it is also the rarest, as it only strikes 10-20% of
patients with mesothelioma.
It appears as spindle-shaped pattern
of cells that overlap one another, and generally arises from support
tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, and fat. Death usually
occurs within six months of diagnosis of sarcomatoid mesothelioma.
is not a condition
on its own, but rather a combination of the other two types.
It can take on both the good and bad aspects of sarcomatoid and
epithelioid mesotheliomas and 20-35% of all mesothelioma cases are
mixed or biphasic.
Because it takes decades before the first
symptoms appear, many health professionals believe that there will
be a mesothelioma epidemic in the decades to come.
Symptoms of pleural mesothelioma
occur as a result of the thickening of the pleural membrane. This
is caused by the rapid production of cancerous cells, which can
then lead to the build up of fluid between membrane layers. Tissue
thickening and fluid build up, place added pressure on the lungs
leading to reduced respiratory function..
or raspy cough (usually with little or no phlegm)
Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia)
Night sweats or fever
Unexplained weight loss
Persistant pain in the chest or rib area
Or painful breathing
Shortness of breath (dyspnea that occurs even when resting)
The appearance of lumps under the skin on the chest.
Symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma
are caused by the thickening of the peritoneal membrane and the
resulting build up of fluid between the layers of membranes in the
Night sweats or fever
Unexplained weight loss
Swelling or pain in the abdomen
or constipation (or any change in bowel habits or regularity)
Nausea or vomiting
The appearance of lumps under the skin on
Symptoms of pericardial mesothelioma
are caused by the build up of fluid and the thickening of the pericardial
Heart palpitations or irregular heart beats.(arrhythmia)
(dyspnea which occurs when
Fever or night sweats
mesothelioma develops in the pericardium,
a membrane that surrounds
and provides protection and support to this organ.
membrane is composed of two different layers:
an outer layer and
an inner layer known as the visceral layer
called the epicardium.
The parietal layer is part of a larger membrane
that lines the
entire chest cavity,
while the visceral layer is the peri- cardial
that lines the heart.
accounts for approximately half
of all pericardial tumours and is
Pericardial mesothelioma accounts for
1 to 6 percent of all mesotheliomas.
To date, fewer than 150 cases
have been presented in medical literature
and approximately 200
cases have been reported world wide.
Pericardial tumours are typically
diffuse (not localized) and tend to cover most of the heart.
is the rarest of all mesothelioma
as less than one hundred cases have been recorded.
This type of mesothelioma develops
in the lining that surrounds
Due to the extreme rarity of testicular mesothelioma,
very little has been noted about
its symptoms and the treatment
Often, the disease is not diagnosed until
patients notice the appearance of testicular lumps.
cases, surgery for an unrelated condition
such as a hernia leads
to the detection of testicular mesothelioma.
This disease is an exceedingly rare disease, which renders its origin,
pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy challenging.
Unlike pleural thickening,
pleural plaques rarely form for reasons other than asbestos exposure.
As a result, when they appear on a radiograph or CT scan, doctors
immediately suspect damage due to asbestos.
percent of people who are exposed to asbestos over prolonged periods
of time develop pleural plaque.
All asbestos-related ailments
occur because, unlike other airborne particles, asbestos fibres
are small enough to undermine the lungs natural filtration system
and embed themselves in bodily tissues, where they cause inflammation
Asbestosis is a non-cancerous scarring of the delicate tissues
of the lungs caused by asbestos exposure. Although it is not cancerous,
asbestos exposure may also cause lung cancer or mesothelioma, and
asbestosis is an indicator that you are at a higher risk of contracting
these asbestos related diseases.
Asbestosis is a form of
pneumoconiosis, a general term for a type of damage done to the
interior of the lung by inhaled dust. The lung consists of millions
of minute pockets called alveoli where oxygen and carbon dioxide
are transferred to and from the blood. Microscopic dust that reaches
the alveoli can damage the alveoli walls, causing scar tissue which
then puts pressure on the neighbouring alveoli which break and scar,
and so on.
Over time, this reduces the lung's ability to
get oxygen into the blood and the result is shortness of breath,
which can be extreme. To compensate for this the heart works harder
and in the worst cases death comes because of heart failure. Mild
asbestosis may not cause any noticeable symptoms but once scarring
has taken hold the disease will get worse.
I have lung cancer but I smoked;
does my asbestos exposure matter?
Yes. Physicians who are knowledgeable
about asbestos related diseases will tell you that asbestos exposure
and cigarette smoking are a lethal combination. Alone, either cigarette
smoking or asbestos exposure can cause lung cancer. For a person
who has been exposed to asbestos and smoked, the risk is greatly
Hammond EC, Selikoff IJ,
Asbestos exposure, cigarette smoking and death rates.
NY Acad Sci 1979; 330:473-491
Group; Smoking Mortality Ratio
Lung and Other Cancers
It is officially
recognised that asbestos exposure can cause lung and other cancers.
This is known because epidemiological studies of asbestos worker
deaths show a high lung cancer rate. This is made even more difficult
if the sufferer was a smoker at any time in their life as the interaction
between smoking and asbestos exposure greatly increases the risk
There is evidence that exposure to asbestos causes
cancer of the larynx. It may also cause cancers at other sites in
the body, e.g. the gut, colon, rectum and in the ovaries Much of
the evidence is in studies that are very small compared to those
that established the cancer and mesothelioma risks for asbestos.
So evidence of asbestos exposure is crucial in any attempt to link
cancers other than mesothelioma to asbestos
Symptoms of lung cancer
cough that does not go away
Repeated bouts of pneumonia or bronchitis
Shortness of breath
Pain in the chest
and upper back area
Coughing up blood.
In the later
stages of lung cancer,
people may experience fatigue,
of weight,extreme shortness of breath,
facial swelling and back pain.
also be symptoms that
seem unrelated to the lungs.
may be caused by the spread of
a lung cancer to other parts of
Some people have no symptoms,
but learn they
have lung cancer when it
shows up as a mass or lump on a routine
chest x-ray. Others realise something is wrong
when new symptoms
appear or a bout
of bronchitis fails to get better quickly.
LUNG CANCER IN WOMEN OVER SIXTY
HAS DOUBLED SINCE 1970S,
SAYING STUDY MARCH 7TH., 2011
According to new figures
released by the Cancer Research
UK (CRUK),the rate of lung cancer in woman over sixty
risen from 88 per 100,000 in 1975
to 190 per 100,000 in 2008,
the latest year in which these
statistics are available.
Lung cancer in men,
for the same period, fell.
number of women diagnosed
with lung cancer has risen from around
7,800 cases in 1975 to more than 17,500 in 2008.
for men dropped from 23,400 over
60s diagnosed in 1975 to just
19,400 in 2008.
While lung cancer diagnosis in women
same over sixty category
was only 5,700 in 1975 compared to 15,100
In the late 1980s,
lung cancer diagnoses in
womenin their sixties levelled out,
and even started to fall,
but they began to rise again in 2002.
One possible cause of lung
cancer is environmental toxins, such as asbestos.
Difficult to Diagnose
Mesothelioma Cancer in Women
If they were exposed to asbestos
or by way of loved ones they should inform their
physician, particularly if they are experiencing any abnormal symptoms.
Mesothelioma cancer is such a rare disease that not all
doctors are able to diagnose it.
To make matters worse, physicians
often miss it as a diagnosis in female patients because the disease
is especially rare in women.
I wander if it would be so
rare in woman if it was diagnosed correctly in the beginning. I
feel that a lot of physicians don't even bother to ask.
do not want to know, if a woman goes to them with what could be
an asbestos related diseases,
" Were you ever exposed to asbestos "?
should always be asked for both men and women displaying
any of the symptoms shown in the above information. Especially if
They just don't think of all the exposures to asbestos
a woman may have had in the past.
It is now, that these diseases
will be showing up in great numbers
Though most women have
been exposed to asbestos in a secondary manner, countless women
have experienced occupational exposure to asbestos. Before World
War II, occupational exposure among women was practically unheard
of, but as thousands of men left their jobs to fight in the war,
thousands of women took their place in the workforce.
the home to build planes, tanks, and ships, assemble ammunition,
and fill positions in numerous factories and power plants across
the nation, women were suddenly thrown into occupational settings
where asbestos exposure was likely to occur. And just as the men
who filled these positions before them, women were not provided
safety gear to protect them from exposure to asbestos and other
Despite the pre-established dangers of
asbestos, both women and men were exposed to this hazardous mineral
throughout the World War II era (now historically considered one
of the highest production eras for asbestos products)
Given that asbestos was once added into thousands of domestic
and industrial products, a number of industries and workplaces have
been associated with asbestos exposure.
One workplace where
exposure to asbestos commonly occurred was laundry facilities, which
predominately employed women.
Since asbestos is an efficient
insulator, it was regularly used in commercial dryers and other
appliances that involved the use of heat.
and secondary types of exposure to asbestos cancer have resulted
in thousands of women at risk of contracting mesothelioma, asbestosis,
and lung cancer.
Although the ratio of men to women with mesothelioma
is about three to one, the numbers of cases of mesothelioma among
women is rising. Second hand exposure to asbestos is more common
among women than the direct exposure that so many male workers have
In many documented cases of mesothelioma among women,
the asbestos exposure was from the microscopic fibres of asbestos
that were brought home on the work clothes of men who worked in
an asbestos-related industry :
• Asbestos mines
• Asbestos product manufacturers
• Rail yards
• Power plants
The Link Between Ovarian
Cancer and Asbestos Exposure
Since the 1970s scientific
studies have been evaluating the link between asbestos exposure
and ovarian cancer. Some of these studies have involved the use
of talcum powder on the genital area.
Talc has a long history
of asbestos contamination since the minerals can naturally occur
together and develop under similar conditions. For example, a study
published in 1982 reported that women with ovarian cancer were three
times more likely to have used talcum powder (also widely known
as baby powder) on the genital area.
A 1999 study involving
more than 1,000 women found the participants who used talc powder
on the genitals had a sixty percent overall increased relative risk
of developing ovarian cancer.
More recently, the International
Agency for Research on Cancer confirmed that sufficient evidence
has been gathered to prove that asbestos exposure can cause ovarian
In March 2009 the IARC announced, "Sufficient evidence
is now available to show that asbestos also causes cancer of the
larynx and of the ovary"
Cohort studies of women who were
heavily exposed to asbestos in the workplace consistently report
increased risks of ovarian cancer, as in a study of women in the
UK who manufactured gas masks during World War II.
Studies suggest that
asbestos can accumulate in the ovaries of women who are exposed
to it. "Although it may have taken decades" worth of studies to
prove the connection, it has been medically established that asbestos
exposure can cause ovarian cancer. Additional research will continue
to reveal the biological underpinnings of this causal relationship
and will hopefully also help lead to a cure for this asbestos-related
2. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/ovarian-cancer/ds00 293
5. Cramer, D.,Liberman, R.Titus-Ernstoff, L.,et al. (1999).
" Genital talc exposure and risk of ovarian cancer". International
Journal of Cancer: 351-356.
6.Can asbestos cause cancer of the
ovary or genital tract?
7. It is possible. One Italian study
looked at women who had been compensated for asbestos exposure in
their occupation and found a higher incidence of both ovarian and
uterine cancer in those women
8. Another study looked microscopically
at the ovaries of women whose husbands were exposed to asbestos
at work and compared them to women who had not history of exposure.
They found evidence of asbestos in almost 70% of women whose husbands
were exposed and 35% of the other women!
9. Thus if 35% of all
women have asbestos exposure and there is only a 1.4% lifetime incidence
of ovarian cancer, there must be additional factors to consider.
On the other hand, asbestos must still be seriously considered as
a possible ovarian cancer causing agent.
Ovarian Cancer and
Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading
cause of cancer-related death in women in the United States, accounting
for three percent of all cancers in American women. Of all cancers
that affect the female reproductive system, ovarian cancer has the
highest mortality rates
This form of cancer affects the ovaries,
a pair of female reproductive glands.
Exactly how ovarian cancer
develops is not completely understood, but a number of risk factors
have been identified.
One of these risk factors, exposure
to asbestos, was recently confirmed in March 2009 by the International
Agency for Research on Cancer (IRAC). Other risk factors include
age, personal and family cancer history, hormonal cycling, number
of pregnancies, and environmental factors. Environmental factors
aside from asbestos exposure include toxic solvents, dyes, organic
dusts, talc, and triazine herbicides.
exposure has been proven to cause all forms of mesothelioma cancer
(including the most common pleural mesothelioma) lung cancer and
laryngeal cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute, exposure
to asbestos also increases a person's risk of developing throat,
oesophagus, kidney and gall-bladder cancer.
has also been linked to gastrointestinal cancer and colorectal cancer.
cancer is often termed the silent cancer, as it grows quietly and
is often only detected at the final stages, and it is the fourth
biggest killer of all cancers for New Zealand women. About three
hundred and twelve new cases are diagnosed annually with 173 deaths.
Until now, it has been thought the main risk factors included a
family history of the disease, having already had breast cancer
and starting periods at a young age. Women who are overweight or
use hormone replacement therapy are also thought to be more at risk.
Note: My sister Yvonne was the only one in our family to
die from ovarian cancer. There were seven girls in our family and
four have already died. I have not been able to find anyone in either
my mother's side or father's side who have died from this either
and only one of my sister's children who have developed a breast
My parents had 16 children. The eldest was my sister
who was born in 1921, the youngest, my brother in 1946. Forty-
plus grandchildren and numerous great grand- children So I believe
if there was going to be a family history of ovarian cancer it would
have shown by now. I would say that talcum powder has a lot to
answer for in my sister's case
The following is an article
from The Otago Daily Times, printed on the 3rd April 2009
warned of talcum powder danger Home,
News, World Sunday, 28th
Sep 2008 News:
World | Health
Women have been warned to
immediately stop using talcum powder around their genitals in the
wake of research which suggests particles may travel to the ovaries
and trigger a process of inflammation that allows cancer cells to
Although previous studies have raised concerns
over talc, the latest findings from the United States suggest women
who use it are fourty percent more likely to get ovarian cancer,
a much greater risk than first thought.
The Telegraph newspaper
reported....The findings, published in the journal, Cancer Epidemiology,
Biomarkers and Prevention, apply only to talcum powder used around
the private parts, not on the rest of the body Experts from Harvard
Medical School in Boston studied more than 3000 women and found
using talc merely once a week raised the risk of ovarian cancer
by 36 percent, rising to 41 percent for those applying powder every
Dr Maggie Gates, who led the study,
said that until the outcome of further research women should avoid
using talcum powder in the genital area. One alternative is cornstarch
The study revealed that the risks were greater still
for those with a certain genetic profile.
a gene called glutathione S-transferase M1, or GSTM1, but lacking
a gene called glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1), were nearly
three times as likely to develop tumours.
Around one in
10 Caucasian women are thought to have this genetic profile, putting
them at sharply increased risk.
Talc is made from a soft
mineral called hydrous magnesium silicate, which is found throughout
the world. It is crushed, dried and milled to produce powder used
in cosmetic products by millions .
Some experts say it has chemical
similarities to asbestos, which can cause a deadly form of lung
Laboratory tests show ovarian cells exposed to talc
divide more rapidly - a characteristic sign of cancer. Until recently
there was no proof that powder could travel through a woman's reproductive
tract as far as the pelvis and then on to the ovaries.
last year, a separate group of doctors at Harvard Medical School
identified tiny particles of powder in the pelvis of a 68 year old
woman with advanced ovarian cancer who had used talc every day for
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
double dose of misery that develops in the lungs and does not ever
go away. It is primarily associated with smoking, but it is also
a condition that asbestos in the lungs can contribute to. COPD is
a term for chronic bronchitis combined with emphysema.
National Asbestos Registers were established in March 1992 in line
with recommendations made to the Minister of Labour by the Asbestos
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR HEALTH SAFETY
and Other Occupational Lung Diseases in New Zealand 1992-2008
1.8 Discussion Information recorded in the Disease Register
under- estimates the total burden of asbestos-related disease in
New Zealand. This is a consequence of the voluntary nature of the
Register, lack of understanding of work as a factor in disease causation
by the medical profession, and failure by the Cancer Registry to
code occupation in their database.
However the Register
continues to serve a useful purpose,
would if it was made compulsory
for the medical profession and the Cancer Registry to do their job,
not just if they want to)
There is now a greater awareness of the work factor in disease than
In my eyes, if
the job is not done properly then what is the point of doing at
all. Someone really needs to look into this and do something about
The Registers, part of the wider Notifiable
Occupational Disease System (NODS) operated by the Department of
Labour have, in the view of the medical panel, played an important
part in encouraging these developments.
1.8.1 Pleural Plaques One of the aims of the
medical panel was to confirm the view that pleural plaques were
not just a marker of exposure, but represented a disease - state.
The Department of Labour publication Lung Function Changes in
Asbestos Exposed Workers with Pleural Abnormalities in 2000 indicated
a clear dose response pattern, including a reduction of FVC and
FEV1 with increasing asbestos exposure, independent of smoking habit.
The increasing use of HRCT has resulted in the identification
of minor degrees of asbestosis often with few, if any, symptoms
and no disability. It is possible that these individuals will have
a better long-term outlook, although this is not yet established.
1.8.3 Lung Cancer The contribution of occupational
asbestos exposure to the causation of lung cancer is well recognised
as being underestimated, and over-attributed to smoking among workers
exposed to asbestos.
One approach to this issue is to determine
the ratio between mesothelioma and lung cancer on the grounds that
most mesotheliomas are diagnosed and the majority are regarded as
being caused by asbestos exposure at work.
of such a ratio have been suggested and can range from 1 to 10.
Even if the lower ratio of 1:2 is taken - based on the mesothelioma
cases diagnosed over 994 - 2005, for example - some 1,594 cases
of lung cancer due to asbestos exposure would have occurred, or
approximately 145 a year.
It is likely that this figure could
be even higher
1.8.4 Mesothelioma Reported cases of mesothelioma
have continued to rise in New Zealand over the past decade as was
shown in Figure 4, and based on the New Zealand Cancer Registry.
It is of interest to note the mean exposure index for mesothelioma
of 152 - as recorded by the panel - is not dissimilar to exposure
indices for pleural plaques (162), lung cancer (162) and asbestosis
(180). In other words, mesothelioma, like other asbestos-related
conditions, is in general dose dependant.
1.8.5 Chronic Obstruction
Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) and Asbestos Exposure These conditions
are now being recorded if present in individuals with an asbestos-related
disease, as well as in those asbestos-exposed workers who have no
confirmed asbestos-related lung or pleural disease.
past year 33% of the 85 cases of asbestos-related disease also had
COPD, 40% among cases of pleural plaques, 45% among asbestosis cases,
80% among lung cancer cases and 0% among cases of mesothelioma.
In addition, eight cases that were referred to the Panel because
2.4 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic Obstructive
Respiratory Disease (CORD), or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
(COPD), as it is now more commonly referred to, "is the fourth leading
cause of death worldwide".
It is defined as a condition
with airflow limitation which is not fully reversible, is progressive
and is associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the
lungs to noxious particles or gases. Historically, and still, the
major cause is cigarette smoking.
However, there is increasing
evidence indicating that exposure to dusts, gases, and fumes at
work are linked to the development of COPD.
As a result, it
is now recognised as an occupational disease in certain situations,
with likely additive effects occurring between smoking and some
Contaminants of air associated in studies
with work- related COPD, include welding fumes silica, coal, oil
mist, Portland cement, cotton, grain and wood dusts The production
of Portland cement used to include asbestos in the make-up
Pulmonary Disease (COPD) - The American Lung Association reports
that exposure to asbestos can easily irritate a previously existing
case of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). In some cases,
asbestos exposure may even be one of the factors that cause the
condition. COPD refers to two conditions: emphysema and chronic
bronchitis. The airways and air sacs of the lungs of a patient with
COPD lose elasticity. This can make exhalation difficult and can
cause air to become trapped inside the lungs.
of illness includes afflictions that create similar symptoms due
to toxins other than cigarette smoke. They are caused by exposure
to hazardous inhalants in the workplace or on remote job sites.
Latest PubMed Articles
Does Long - Term Asbestos Exposure
Cause an Obstructive Ventilation...
shows that long-term exposure
to asbestos- containing dust
leads not only to a reduction
of lung volume as well
as to limitations of forced expiratory flows,
such as FEF (50)
and FEF (75),
but also to increased frequencies of FEV (1)/FVC,
and elevated airway resistance.
There is evidence for
and an increase in
in parallel to an increase
due to the latency
Remarkably, even asbestos workers without
or parenchymal changes already show
lung function impairment
is usually small on average,
some of these subjects
show functional impairment of clinical
in the pathological range.
In asbestos workers
who also smoke,
due to synergistic effects,
especially of the peripheral airways,
is highly significantly
The use of inappropriate reference values,
and airway trapping lead to
lung function impairments.
no differences among the various occupations
Affiliation Ordinariat Arbeitsmedizin,
Universitary Atsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf,
Arbeits medizin und Maritime Medizin.
Pneumologie (Stuttgart, Germany) ISSN: 1438-8790
Occupational Lung Diseases
This category of illness
that create similar symptoms due to
other than cigarette smoke.
They are caused by exposure to
hazardous inhalants in the workplace
or on remote jobsites.
Coal miners are not the only ones
at risk for occupational lung
they are only the best known example.
working in a car garage,
a textile factory,
steel or paper
mills or a power plant
are often exposed to asbestos,
can lead to asbestosis
or mesothelioma cancer.
can also be found in a wide
variety of locations along with other
hazardous chemicals, dusts,
and fibres that may lead to a lifetime
of pulmonary symptoms if not
properly diagnosed and treated.
Exposure to asbestos fibres
or other airborne toxins
can trigger COPD especially
when combined with cigarette
Occupational lung disorders
are the number one cause
of work-related illness.
Occupational lung diseases
are similar to
asbestos related afflictions.
They are most
often caused by repeated,
but can also
be the result of a
single hazardous occurrence.
and severity of an
occupational lung disease.
Any respiratory toxicity will
heighten the risk of lung cancer.
A Common and Often Hidden
COPD may be a relatively
new term to many people,
that are included in COPD are not.
COPD is a widespread
in most countries,
impacting a large number of
people - especially older people.More than twelve million people
are currently diagnosed with
An additional twelve million
probably have the disease
and don't know it.
COPD develops slowly,
as the lungs
are damaged over
a period of time
by tobacco smoke
Because symptoms develop gradually
is usually made
after substantial damage has been done.
Eventually severe COPD may prevent
a patient from basic physical
making this among the most
debilitating of diseases.
Most of the time,
COPD is diagnosed in middle-aged
It is self-induced,
in the sense that the disease
from person to person.
COPD has no cure yet;
nor is there a way to reverse the damage.
only slow the
progression of the disease.
Specialists in Mesothelioma
Message For Navy Personnel
Poems And Verses